diary F cijkl = Equation 2 + ? x ijkl + ? y ijkl + ? c ( ? x ijkl ) + ? c ( ? y ijkl )
ijkl and yijkl equal 0. xijkl indicates local-spouse-hypergamy (migrant spouse is more educated than local spouse), and yijkl indicates local-spouse-hypogamy (migrant spouse is less educated than local spouse). Thus, when i equals 0 and j equals 1 (migrant husband and local wife), xijkl equals 1 if k > l and 0 otherwise, yijkl equals 1 if k < l>
2nd, i measure ining the probability of hukou intermarriage alter having each spouse’s education (Gullickson and you can Torche, 2014), and in addition we further glance at variation from inside the sector replace between the two cities.
record F cijkl = Formula 2 + ? p = step one 2 ? p you pij + ? q = step one 2 ? q w qij + ? c ? p = step one 2 ? p u pij + ? c ? q = 1 dos ? q w qij
When i equals j (hukou homogamy), both upij and wqij equal 0. upij measures the education effects for migrant spouses to form hukou intermarriages, and wqij measures the education effects for local spouses to form hukou intermarriages. When i equals 0 and j equals 1 (migrant husband and local wife), upij equals 1 if k >p and wqij equals 1 if l > q; when i equals 1 and j equals 0 (local husband and migrant wife), upij equals 1 if l > p and wqij equals 1 if k > q.
Thus, this model estimates separately how migrants’ and locals’ likelihoods of marrying across hukou boundaries change as their educations change. Specifically, ?p and ?q capture how the log-odds of hukou intermarriage change for migrants and locals, respectively, when moving up one level of education from either p or q (e.g., from less than high school to high school). Positive values of ? indicate that the odds of hukou intermarriage increase as migrant spouses’ educations increase, and negative values indicate that the odds of hukou intermarriage decrease as migrant spouses’ educations increase. ? provides the same information for local spouses. We expect ? to be positive and S to be negative, and we expect n and ? to be less pronounced in Shanghai than in Shenzhen.
Descriptive leads to Dining table step 1 let you know hukou locality pairings off partners of the area. Within the Shanghai, in the 47% out of small-census was basically contracted ranging from a couple of migrants; inside the Shenzhen, you to commission are more 70%. About 38% regarding marriages on it two regional partners inside the Shanghai, while fifteen% regarding marriage ceremonies got several regional partners into the Shenzhen. Clearly, individuals had a tendency to wed within their hukou standing class in both metropolises. In cities, marriage ceremonies ranging from a local husband and you may an excellent migrant wife were far apt to be than simply marriages ranging from a great migrant spouse and you may a local spouse to occur (13% versus. 3% into the Shanghai and eleven% against. 4% during the Shenzhen). New percentage of hukou locality homogamy is similar regarding a couple of metropolitan areas. Yet, we wish to understand the outcome which have caution, as show out of migrants is different during these a few metropolises. The brand new relative measurements of migrants and you can locals creates architectural relationship ventures for individuals to find possible spouses and in the end ). Log-linear data lets us check the level of hukou homogamy, online of your own compositional consequences, by the managing to possess limited withdrawals off hukou reputation.
Dining table step 1.
We earliest introduce the withdrawals ValkovenГ¤jГ¤ naiset vs. amerikkalaiset naiset regarding education attainment to have migrant husbands, local husbands, migrant spouses, and you may regional spouses for the for each and every town, correspondingly, in the Contour 1 . Normally, migrants was reduced experienced than locals, aside from gender, both in Shanghai and you will Shenzhen. Certainly migrants, the male is finest knowledgeable than simply ladies in both Shanghai and you will Shenzhen. In contrast, certainly one of locals, the fresh new gender gap within the training is both quick or even stopped: regional guys typically are merely some top experienced than just its female counterparts from inside the Shenzhen, and you may local women on average be knowledgeable than its men counterparts inside the Shanghai. Log-linear habits control towards degree inequalities ranging from individuals and you may anywhere between residents and you will migrants to fully capture the new associations ranging from spouses’ knowledge and you will ranging from academic and you may hukou locality assortative mating, web of your marginal distributions out of spouses’ characteristics.